TARGET SPECIFICATION:

Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.

Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254

-iL <inputfilename>: Input from list of hosts/networks

-iR <num hosts>: Choose random targets

–exclude <host1[,host2][,host3],…>: Exclude hosts/networks

–excludefile <exclude_file>: Exclude list from file

 

HOST DISCOVERY:

-sL: List Scan – simply list targets to scan

-sn: Ping Scan – disable port scan

-Pn: Treat all hosts as online — skip host discovery

-PS/PA/PU/PY[portlist]: TCP SYN/ACK, UDP or SCTP discovery to given ports

-PE/PP/PM: ICMP echo, timestamp, and netmask request discovery probes

-PO[protocol list]: IP Protocol Ping

-n/-R: Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes]

–dns-servers <serv1[,serv2],…>: Specify custom DNS servers

–system-dns: Use OS’s DNS resolver

–traceroute: Trace hop path to each host

 

 

SCAN TECHNIQUES:

-sS/sT/sA/sW/sM: TCP SYN/Connect()/ACK/Window/Maimon scans

-sU: UDP Scan

-sN/sF/sX: TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans

–scanflags <flags>: Customize TCP scan flags

-sI <zombie host[:probeport]>: Idle scan

-sY/sZ: SCTP INIT/COOKIE-ECHO scans

-sO: IP protocol scan

-b <FTP relay host>: FTP bounce scan

 

 

PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:

-p <port ranges>: Only scan specified ports

Ex: -p22; -p1-65535; -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080,S:9

–exclude-ports <port ranges>: Exclude the specified ports from scanning

-F: Fast mode – Scan fewer ports than the default scan

-r: Scan ports consecutively – don’t randomize

–top-ports <number>: Scan <number> most common ports

–port-ratio <ratio>: Scan ports more common than <ratio>

 

 

SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:

-sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info

–version-intensity <level>: Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)

–version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)

–version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)

–version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)

 

 

SCRIPT SCAN:

-sC: equivalent to –script=default

–script=<Lua scripts>: <Lua scripts> is a comma separated list of directories, script-files or script-categories

–script-args=<n1=v1,[n2=v2,…]>: provide arguments to scripts

–script-args-file=filename: provide NSE script args in a file

–script-trace: Show all data sent and received

–script-updatedb: Update the script database.

–script-help=<Lua scripts>: Show help about scripts.

<Lua scripts> is a comma-separated list of script-files or   script-categories.

 

 

OS DETECTION:

-O: Enable OS detection

–osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets

–osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively

 

 

TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:

Options which take <time> are in seconds, or append ‘ms’ (milliseconds),

‘s’ (seconds), ‘m’ (minutes), or ‘h’ (hours) to the value (e.g. 30m).

-T<0-5>: Set timing template (higher is faster)

–min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup <size>: Parallel host scan group sizes

–min-parallelism/max-parallelism <numprobes>: Probe parallelization

–min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout <time>: Specifies probe round trip time.

–max-retries <tries>: Caps number of port scan probe retransmissions.

–host-timeout <time>: Give up on target after this long

–scan-delay/–max-scan-delay <time>: Adjust delay between probes

–min-rate <number>: Send packets no slower than <number> per second

–max-rate <number>: Send packets no faster than <number> per second

 

 

FIREWALL/IDS EVASION AND SPOOFING:

-f; –mtu <val>: fragment packets (optionally w/given MTU)

-D <decoy1,decoy2[,ME],…>: Cloak a scan with decoys

-S <IP_Address>: Spoof source address

-e <iface>: Use specified interface

-g/–source-port <portnum>: Use given port number

–proxies <url1,[url2],…>: Relay connections through HTTP/SOCKS4 proxies

–data <hex string>: Append a custom payload to sent packets

–data-string <string>: Append a custom ASCII string to sent packets

–data-length <num>: Append random data to sent packets

–ip-options <options>: Send packets with specified ip options

–ttl <val>: Set IP time-to-live field

–spoof-mac <mac address/prefix/vendor name>: Spoof your MAC address

–badsum: Send packets with a bogus TCP/UDP/SCTP checksum

 

 

OUTPUT:

-oN/-oX/-oS/-oG <file>: Output scan in normal, XML, s|<rIpt kIddi3,

and Grepable format, respectively, to the given filename.

-oA <basename>: Output in the three major formats at once

-v: Increase verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)

-d: Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)

–reason: Display the reason a port is in a particular state

–open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports

–packet-trace: Show all packets sent and received

–iflist: Print host interfaces and routes (for debugging)

–append-output: Append to rather than clobber specified output files

–resume <filename>: Resume an aborted scan

–stylesheet <path/URL>: XSL stylesheet to transform XML output to HTML

–webxml: Reference stylesheet from Nmap.Org for more portable XML

–no-stylesheet: Prevent associating of XSL stylesheet w/XML output

 

 

MISC:

-6: Enable IPv6 scanning

-A: Enable OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute

–datadir <dirname>: Specify custom Nmap data file location

–send-eth/–send-ip: Send using raw ethernet frames or IP packets

–privileged: Assume that the user is fully privileged

–unprivileged: Assume the user lacks raw socket privileges

-V: Print version number

-h: Print this help summary page.

 

 

EXAMPLES:

nmap -v -A scanme.nmap.org

nmap -v -sn 192.168.0.0/16 10.0.0.0/8

nmap -v -iR 10000 -Pn -p 80

 

SEE THE MAN PAGE (https://nmap.org/book/man.html) FOR MORE OPTIONS AND EXAMPLES

 

Nmap commands

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